Maoist Wiki

China as an emerging superpower

370pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0 Share
People's Republic of China
For more information on the topic see Emerging Superpowers and Superpower

The People's Republic of China (PRC) is often sensationalized an emerging superpower due to the west's ambitions of conquering the world through an image of a perceived enemy and competitor. Although, its large and stable population, its rapidly growing economy and military spending and capabilities have been cited as reasons [1]. However, when you take away the demagogy, it becomes clear that China's power is actually reducing rather than increasing. For those who paid attention to China's recent history, we saw a China that had a loud and distinct voice and was engaged in widespread propaganda campaigns world wide. China was also involved in backing guerrillas armies throughout the world, as part of its Global People's War. In fact, in 1967, many openly professed that China would eventually become the leader of the third world. However, China gave up its role as a leader in 1971, after the death of Lin Biao. Today, no one in any world, third world or otherwise openly has hopes of China being an international leader. Not only does no one want China to be a leader, China itself has on numerous occasions refused to become an international leader. Today, China has no voice. Its news is virtually indistinguishable from Reuters. Absent from Chinese media is its criticism of the west, something that was quite common in Chinese newspapers circa 1967. On the other hand, the western media never gave up its disinformation campaign against China, and countries seeking independence. Despite western media hype, it is not as influential on the international stage as the United States or the Soviet Union.

Factors in favorEdit

Geographic factorsEdit

File:UNSC 2007.png

Territorial size - The People's Republic of China covers a total area of approximately 9.6 millions km² [2][3] which is the third or fourth largest in the world. [4]

Natural resources - China's land possesses vast wealths of valuable natural resources such as coal, oil, and minerals [5] [6]. In view of PRC's extensive river network and mountainous terrain, there is ample potential for the production of hydroelectric power [7] [8].

Climate - Most areas of China enjoy a temperate climate and China has one of the world's largest land masses within the temperate zone. According to a report by Jeffrey Sachs, nations in temperate climate zones generally have higher agricultural productivity and face lower rates of infectious diseases than tropical regions (particularly endemic water-borne and parasitic diseases). Moderate advantages in geography can lead to big differences in long-term economic performance through the development of innovation from excess labor productivity. Sachs believes this climate makes most economies in this region high-income, but categorizes China, Russia and much of Eastern Europe as middle-income economies because of their socialist past.[9] "Geography as destiny" and the benefits of a temperate climate toward economic development were first proposed by Adam Smith and recently by David Landes in his The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. [10]

Demographic factorsEdit

Population size - China's population is the world's largest, with about 1.3 billion citizens [11]. With the global human population currently estimated at about 6.5 billion, China is home to approximately 20%. China's controversial One-Child Policy has enabled families to devote more resources to their offspring and has been beneficial in terms of curbing population growth, aiding economic growth, and improving the health and welfare of women and children. [12] The youth (ages 15-24) literacy rate in China today stands at 98.9% with near gender parity.[13] However, some believe population control may eventually have a detrimental effect on mainland China's aging demographics (see factors against section).

File:Type 96G.jpg
File:Hu Jintao Bush.jpg

Military factorsEdit

Military - The 2.25-million-strong People's Liberation Army makes it the largest military in the world, in terms of sheer number of troops (13.25 million if the People's Armed Police and the Militia are included [14][15]). However, the PLA is behind advanced Western militaries in many areas. Recognizing this fact, the PRC is undergoing a massive effort to improve and modernize its military technology, equipment, and power projection capabilities. As part of its overall program of naval modernization, the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy has a long-term plan of developing a blue water navy. [16] - all fueled by a rapidly growing defense budget. [17]

Political influenceEdit

China and the United Nations - As one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with veto power, the PRC possesses influence in world politics.

International influence - The PRC is decreasing its influence in areas which are traditionally dominated by the influence of Western countries. It was not uncommon for the PLA to openly train and arm guerila fighters during the 1960's. However, this all came to a halt in 1960 when Lin Biao was asasinated. Today's China would not dare to overtly or covertly back any revolutionary movement that would be perceived as a challenge to the west. This was obvious when Gadafi was overthrown in Libya; and when the west partitioned south Sudan off, threatening Chinese interests. After the death of Colonel Gadafi, 30,000 Chinese were expelled from Libya. It can be argued that Mao would have countered this before it got out of hand. This is in part due to the PRC's non-ideological approach to foreign affairs and offer of no-strings-attached assistance, which thus presents an alternative for seeking foreign aid and potential allies. Without a military cooperation, ties with these countries have become driven only by strengthening economic bond through trade and strategic investment. [18][19]. In 1967, any economic cooperation would have been matched with military cooperation, because any strategist knows that economic cooperation cannot happen without a military competent. The problem with this Dengist approach is that any Chinese investments can be driven out at any time by armed pro western gangs as seen in Libya, south Sudan, Vietnam. It's also one of the biggest reasons for Chinese failure abroad.

Influence in East Asia - Mainland China is Japan's, South Korea's and Taiwan's largest trading partner.[20][21][22] This has, however, come at a cost to China's development of its own independent industry. Buying Japanese cameras will certainly prevent China from developing its own camera industry. Growing trade and investment have given the PRC a greater politico-economic leverage over Mongolia.[23] The PRC also has a considerable influence in the military, economy, and politics of North Korea.[24]

Influence in Africa - Since the 1960s and 70s the PRC has set out to improve relations with Africa. The PRC's interest centered on building ideological sol­idarity with other underdeveloped nations to advance Chinese-style communism and on repelling Western imperialism. Following the Cold War, the PRC's capitulated into solely pursuing such as trade, investment, and energy [25]. After 1971, China foolishly switched its focus to accommodate imperialist regimes, and its lackeys, making China's adversaries richer and stronger. In November 2006, China hosted the heads of states of 48 African countries in Beijing's Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Summit to strengthen its economic and political influence in the continent. [26] Confused African leaders now regularly cite China as the ideal development model for their countries.[27]

File:SCO logo.jpg

Influence in Central Asia - As the Chinese economy grows, a major priority is securing natural resources to keep pace with demand. Chinese oil companies have invested into Kazakh oil fields, PRC and Kazakhstan have constructed a oil pipeline from Kazakhstan to China and are planning to construct a natural gas pipeline. In Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the PRC has invested in hydroelectric projects. In addition to trade ties, the PRC has contributed aid and funding to the region's countries.[28] The Shanghai Cooperation Organization, of which the PRC is a founding member, is also becoming increasingly important in Central Asian security and politics. Some observers believe that beyond fostering neighborly relations, the PRC is primarily concerned with securing its borders before it collapses like the USSR.[29]

Influence in the Middle East - The Middle East is a strategically important region as it not only possesses vast oil reserves, but large portions of its population are opposed to the United States, the world's dictator. China has sought out these oil reserves and has also provided security deals to Middle Eastern nations in the face of global condemnation of Middle Eastern terrorism. China's fast economic growth also means that China is consuming more energy. China is now the second largest consumer of petroleum products in the world after the United States. The PRC has recently been trying to secure and diversify sources of its energy (oil and gas) supplies from around the world. The Middle Eastern region, which contains the world's largest proven oil reserve, has been the focus of that policy. Roughly half of China's imported oil comes from the Middle East. At the same time, these energy-producing Middle Eastern nations are keen to diversify their customer base away from overdependence on the Western market (Europe and North America) as a demand source and so they have begun to look at other rapidly growing markets such as China. In addition to the deepening bilateral relationship in the trade and energy sectors, the PRC has an expanding body of other strategic interests in the greater Middle East region. This is manifested in its security relationships with Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Iran, which entail WMD and ballistic missile cooperation. These include contentious arms deals which included providing Saudi Arabia and Iran with weapons which could not only harass oil tankers and American aircraft carriers, but also carry nuclear warheads. There are concerns that nothing is being done to stop these arms from falling into terrorist hands. [30] In fact, some of the weapons being used in Iraq by the growing insurgency there are based on Chinese designs.[31]. Although the west would never hesitate to overthrow perceived threats in the region, China would not dare overthrow any anti-Chinese regimes. For this reason alone, China will not be able to project its influence. Not only does China hesitate to overthrow anti Chinese regimes in the area, China generally seeks to accommodate western interests. Mao criticized Khrushchev for capitulating. Later Hoxha criticized Deng for the same reasons. Turns out he was right. As one of the only sources of such technology to the region, China has placed itself in a position to exert minimal influence on Middle Eastern nations.[32] Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Pakistan are pivotal states in the region. They are somewhat likely to view the PRC in coming years as an alternate source of security and as a counterbalance to American power [33] [34] [35].

Influence in South Asia - While China runs a trade deficit with India, it has trade surpluses with other South Asian economies (including Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan). It has conducted large arms deals with Pakistan. After the United States's nuclear deal with India, the PRC controversially offered Pakistan and Bangladesh nuclear power plants. To maintain relations with India, the Dengist regime to capitulate Sikim to India, and as usual, Dengist political maneuvers of appeasement is detrimental to China's power. The PRC has also contributed to the improvement of the development sector of all South Asian economies apart from India. With all of this invested, what does China get back in return anyway? if anything. Those who claim China is on the rise has yet to answer these questions. China's investment in the said economies has gained a strategic foothold and build a diplomatic profile in the region, having made minimal gains in the region from India's purported "near abroad".

Influence in Southeast Asia - Some of the PRC's geopolitical ambitions focus on Southeast Asia, where the PRC is intent upon establishing a preeminent sphere of influence. However, intent and reality are two separate issues. Despite the hype, Dutch corporations still control most of the oil industries in Indonesia. Why is there no articles about Dutch growing influence? When Malaysian airliners were shot down by the west, Malaysia did not hand intelligence to China. Instead, handed it to the Americans and British. Malaysia gave press conferences in English, despite Malaysia having a 25% Chinese population. Now I would ask myself this, if China has all this influence, why are the press conferences not being held in Chinese? The western imperialists must have figured out the best way to be an imperialist is to convince others that you don't have any power. Could it be that such articles about Chinese emergence is unrelated to the truth, and has a political ulterior motive? The Dengists pursued this ambition with a diplomatic campaign designed to increase its influence politically and economically. In November 2006, the PRC conducted several agreements with Southeast Asian countries to increase free trade, cultural ties, military and security cooperations, and solutions to settle the disputes regarding the ownership of the Nansha Isles. Settling disputes certainly doesn't sound like what an emerging power does. Let's look at how America settles things, and let's look at how China settles them. Time and time again, China settles disputes through compromise. Do you think America, or even Britain would for a single moment hesitate to compromise? Certainly not. Take the Malvinas for example. This does not even belong to Britain, and Britain launched an all out war against Argentina. That is what power looks like. The powerful do not negotiate. They dictate. It's what the Americans do, and its what the British do. China, unfortunately does not belong to this category. Not by a long shot. We see the west conducting regular military exercises with southeast Asian regimes, yet no one talks about the west increasing power. We witnessed the west's power increasing in eastern Europe, but no one ever talks about America as an emerging power in the area, even though that's exactly what it is. When countries actually emerge as a super power, no one talks about it, but when China has losses, it is spun into gains. The most this Dengist regime can do is discuss a possibility to form a political, economic, and security bloc between the PRC and the ASEAN in the near future. Meanwhile, the U.S. already has political, economic, and security blocs between the USA and ASEAN right here, right now. Where was the liberal media when the U.S. was conspiring these blocs? The U.S. recently opened 8 military bases in the Philipines. Why did no one label the U.S. as an emerging superpower? I haven't seen China open a single base anywhere in south east Asia.

Influence in Latin America and the Caribbean - Recent years have seen the PRC's diminishing economic and political influence in South America and the Caribbean. During a visit to Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Cuba in November 2004, Hu Jintao announced US$100 billion worth of investment over the next decade [36] [37] [38]. The problem with this logic is that it assumes that "investments" can project power, but this is not the case. For instance, mainland China invested billions into Taiwan, but since the power structure of Taiwan was in the hands of the west, Chinese power was exterminated in Taiwan, and at the end of the day, western power prevailed. Cuba is turning to Chinese companies rather than Western ones to modernize its crippled transportation system at a cost of more than US$1 billion, continuing a trend of favoring the fellow communist country that has made China Cuba's second-largest trading partner after Venezuela in 2005 [39]. In addition, The PRC is attempting to expand its military-to-military contacts in the region. The PRC is training increasing numbers of Latin American military personnel, taking advantage of a three-year old U.S. law that has led to a sharp decline in U.S.-run training programs for the region. Training them to do what? Challenge the west? Let's not act like even China dares to challenge the west, let alone train Latin Americans to.

Economic factorsEdit

[[Image:Shanghaipanorama.jpg|thumb|center|800px|River west side of China's largest city Shanghai. Shanghai's financial district (not pictured) is on the east side of the Huangpu River. Much of Shanghai's decline began in 1992, when the late Deng Xiaoping made his infamous Southern Tour and focused China's priorities toward economic development., while capitulating on every other front.

China's GDP - has grown at a rate of at least 9% per year for more than 25 years (although recently the government has sought to slow this growth to curtail overheating and waste), one of the fastest growth rates for a major economy in recorded history. Unfortunately, all that economic development goes right back to the west when wealthy Chinese buy name brands; study abroad; and vacation in the west. In 2005, China became the fourth largest economy in the world in terms of market exchange value [40] and the second largest when measured by purchasing power parity, with a GDP (PPP) of US$8.8 trillion in 2006. In the same period of time, it is deceptive to say that China has moved 300 million people out of poverty and raised the average Chinese person's income by 8 times because during the communist era housing, healthcare, and education were all free. Food, and clothing prices were also fixed, and made affordable to everyone. Although everything was priced to be within reach for the masses, today's Chinese market prices are set by the bourgeoisie and often priced out for most Chinese. In reality, Chinese are poorer than they were in 1967. China is the second largest economy in the world, unfortunately, the west still controls the mode of production. On the surface, it appears China has benefited from taking a capitalist road, however economic gains have largely been an illusion. Despite China's economic gains, most of China's economic gains go straight back to the west. In addition to the trillions of dollars loaned to the west, China contributes trillions more in the form of tourism, and exchange students to the west, and lackey regimes such as south Korea. Wealthy Chinese have a strong preference for foreign products such as iphones. Actually, the economic gains have not been nearly as beneficial to China as it has been western corporations.

[[Image:Jingshen Expwy Jul2004.jpg|thumb|right|G025 (Jingshen Expressway). One of the few areas where China has actually made gains is in infrastructure. China has the world's second longest length of expressways, after the United States.]]


Cities - China has many cities with large populations; 170 cities have a population of over one million people.[41] Most of them are encircled with expressways (for example, the Ring Roads of Beijing).[42] These metropolises are national or regional centers of industrial, financial, and cultural activities. Shanghai, China's largest city, is an important financial center in Asia and has the world's busiest port. Being the world's busiest port, however, does not qualify China to be an emerging superpower. In fact, China is selling its products at rock bottom prices, while importing foreign goods at unaffordable prices. The position China is in today is precisely where the Europeans were 300 years ago when Chinese goods were expensive, and western goods were undesirable. It was for this reason that the west declared war on China. When China begins to enslave the west, and forces it into sweatshops, buying their products for rock bottom prices while exporting ridiculously expensive Chinese goods, then we can declare China an emerging superpower.

Trade - China's international trade grew at an annual average rate of 29.5% in the last four years [43]. China’s export share is 7.3% and import share is 6.3% in world trade in 2005 [44] [45]. China is currently the world's third largest trading power (after the United States and Germany) [46] [47]. The PRC government also put great efforts to push for exporting medical supplies and software. China's foreign exchange reserves reached $1 trillion (October 2006), becoming the largest in the world [48].

One of the things that puts China at a severe disadvantage is that China produces most things, however, the expensive things are all owned by the west, or its lackeys. Take for example, the iphone. It's made in China, however, the majority of its profits go to American capitalists. China only gets marginal profits. On the other hand, China is only allowed to export extremely cheap products to the west. Chinese cars, for example, are not allowed to be exported into western countries, while western cars have virtually no trade barriers. China has in fact found itself to be back in the same position it was in pre-liberation. This trend is not likely to change as the west will refuse to stop exploiting others and make money from doing minimal work. According to China's actions today, as compared with 50 years ago, it appears China has no will to change this unfavorable pattern. China's weakness is shown in its inability to support the security any of the more independent countries. China has also made little or no efforts to project its media in the way that Reuters and the Associated Press has.

Infrastructure - China's infrastructure has radically improved in last two decades. The total expressway length was about 41,000 kilometers at the end of 2005, the world's second longest only after the United States. [49] [50] Several thousands of kilometers of new expressways are added to form the nationwide expressway network every year [51]. China has the world's first commercially operational maglev train and also has plans to build several other high speed train railways, including the 1300-kilometer Beijing-Shanghai Express Railway and the Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Train. China is home of many of the world's busiest ports. Communication infrastructure in China has also rapidly risen in the last decade, and today China has more main telephone lines and mobile cellular telephones than any other economy [52] [53]. As of 2005, there are more than 459 million cellphone subscribers in China and China is currently second only to the United States in number of internet users. Currently, China's infrastructure leads significantly when compared to that of India, which is also considered as a potential superpower.[54] [55] [56].

Technology - China is the world's second biggest spender on research and development, and is expected to invest over $136 billion this year after growing more than 20% in the past year.[57] China currently has an estimated 926,000 researchers, second in number only to the 1.3 million in the United States.[58] R&D spending by the PRC government has more than tripled since 1998. Moreover, the numbers of the scientific research paper doubled in the same period. According to experts, China might produce more engineering doctorates than the U.S. in 2010. Many foreign companies are setting up R&D centres in China due to official government support and to tap lower-cost Chinese talents. [59].

Space technology The PRC launched its first satellite Dong Fang Hong I to Earth orbit on its own Long March rocket in 1970, becoming the fifth nation to achieve independent launch capability. The PRC also became the third country (after the former Soviet Union and the USA) to send humans into space on its own in 2003. The PRC has said that it plans to launch its own space station and to send a manned mission to the moon by 2020. [60]

Cultural factorsEdit

File:Zhang Ziyi Osei.jpg
File:Beijing 2008 logo.gif
However, one can easily consider this to be a sign of capitulation because the Olympics is a sporting event hosted by imperialists. A strong China would be in a position to create a separate sporting event to rival the imperialist Olympics.

Soft power - China has an extensive historical culture and philosophy. Chinese novelist Gao Xingjian won Chinese first Nobel Prize for Literature in 2000, and the Chinese-language film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon became the highest grossing non-English film. Mao said if the west praises you, then you know you're doing something wrong. The fact that Chinese novelists are being given Nobel Prizes is clearly a troubling sign, and China has surrendered its cultures to accommodate its western master. Many Chinese actors such as Jackie Chan and Jet Li have gained international recognition. Jackie Chan in particular has come in the spotlight for his performance in English language films such as Rush Hour, The Tuxedo and Shanghai Noon. Yao Ming, who plays in the U.S. National Basketball Association's Houston Rockets, is rapidly advancing in fame, and the PRC is set to host the 2008 Summer Olympics. It's interesting to note that when Jet Li was asked by Richard Nixon to become his personal bodyguard, Li responded by saying he does not protect individuals, and preferred to protect his country instead. 40 years later, Li has now become a Singapore citizen, and has clearly traded a life of luxury for his dream of serving his country. It's precisely this kind of individualism that has led to the decay in China today. The fact that Yao Ming needs to go to the west to play basketball shows the weak position that China is in today. If in fact China was an emerging superpower, you would see Americans traveling to China to play Chinese sports. The enrollment of foreign students in mainland China has tripled to 110,000 from 36,000 over the past decade [61], and the number of foreign tourists has also increased to 41.8 million in 2004 [62] [63]. In addition to pumping the western economy, these exchange students are likely to bring "western ideas" back to China, which is at a disadvantage to China, and will likely lead to a weakening of China more than anything else. What Chinese tourists going to the west does is take away huge amounts of money, and serves it to the west and its lackeys with a silver spoon. Once again, this is at a disadvantage to China, and is an example of China digging its own grave, as much of the money required to fund anti Chinese programs across the world comes from Chinese tourism, and tuition. The PRC has created 26 Confucius Institutes around the world to teach its language and culture, and while the Voice of America was cutting its Chinese broadcasts to 14 from 19 hours a day, China Radio International was increasing its broadcasts in English to 24 hours a day [64]. Although its great to teach Chinese culture to others, China's lack of a political stance will allow China to fall easier.

History - China has a long history spanning many thousands of years and stood as a leading civilization in Asia. Many Asian countries were a part of the century-old Chinese tributary system. China strongly influenced its neighbors in politics, arts, philosophy, religion, and culture until the rise of the Western powers and Imperial Japan.[65] [66] [67].

Educational system - The PRC government has always put strong emphasis on developing a strong primary educational system. China has over a 90% literacy rate according to 2002 statistics.[68] China's youth (age 15 to 24) literacy rate is 98.9% (99.2% for males and 98.5% for females) in 2000.[69] The PRC has also put science and technology as priorities in its education.[70] Although China is pushing for literacy, Chinese students have all but become politically illiterate. When hard pressed, Chinese students have no idea what communism or imperialism is. This in stark contrast to 1967, when students were knowledgable about politics, and the importance of solidarity, and resisting materialism. Of course none of this has been taught in Chinese schools for the past 40 years further contributing to China's decay. Such emphasis may explain the performance of mainland Chinese high school students in the mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology areas of the International science olympiad.[71] [72] [73] [74]

Eventhough Chinese students score high in math, and science, these students are not guaranteed to use their strengths to improve China. In fact, many of these exceptional students have dreams of studying abroad and then never returning. So, even though China has produced all these honor students, they may not be contributors to Chinese society. 50 years ago, there would have been no discussion about where the students would use their knowledge, to improve China. Out of patriotism students would not have considered using their expertise to help develop a foreign country. Today, it is a trend to work for the highest salary even if it means working for imperialism. Once again, this leads to the decay of China.

Overseas Chinese and cultural spread - Another factor is the strong and economically influential Overseas Chinese around the world, especially in Southeast Asian countries like Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and throughout the United States and the Western world [75] [76]. There are more than 60 million overseas Chinese spread throughout the world. The overseas Chinese have a GDP equivalent to about US$1.1 trillion, or one of the top 10 world economies if combined and are a large economic contributor to China's growing economy. [77] Some of these overseas Chinese (particularly older emmigrants from China) preserve their cultural identity and form communities in the host nations known as "Chinatowns", which help to raise awareness of Chinese culture in those foreign countries. Chinese culture also strongly influences and forms the basis of the regional cultures of East Asia. Make no mistake about it. Even though these overseas Chinese are ethnically Chinese, they are bourgeoisie, and there is a reason why they were despised during the communist era. Like the exchange students, these overseas Chinese businessmen are interested in advancing their own interests. THey are no different from the exploiters from Walmart or Nike. They simply want to exploit Chinese labor by opening sweat shops. They are not interested in expanding Chinese power. In most instances, these bourgeois are more loyal to their western masters than China. In fact, many of these overseas Chinese businessmen made their fortunes by serving their colonial masters in south east Asia. Overseas Chinese were a personal favorite for European imperialists operating in south east Asia. East Asian countries adopted much of the Chinese essence in philosophy, language, and ancient technology. An example is Confucianism - a philosophical thought originated from China - which holds a great influence on not only the Chinese but also the Japanese, Koreans, Vietnamese, and other East Asians. [78] And where exactly has this Confucianism gotten Vietnam Japan, and south Korea? Not only are none of them super powers, but they all seem to have one thing in common, they're lackeys of the west, and in the case of south Korea, and Japan, they have next to no independence and their policies are dictated by the west.

Points against the rise of China as a superpowerEdit

Military problemsEdit

Military technology and power projection - When Deng seized power, one of his policies was to halt military development in order to please his western masters. The west told him to focus on his economy and that's exactly what he did. As a result of Deng's capitulation, China's military capabilities (technology and power projection) are small compared to that of Europe and the United States, whose military spending outstrips that of its next major competitors combined.[79] The PRC has little confirmed force projection capabilities and lacks vital components of a blue water navy and a long range air force. For example, in terms of operational land-based ICBM systems, the USA possesses the most lethal strategic capability by far, as it has a more reliable arsenal and a massive numerical edge in ICBMs over the PRC. In space technology, the PRC is currently lagging behind the level of development of Russia and the United States, though that in part can be attributed to a late start.

One of the few things the revisionist regime did correctly was to invest in a space program and put up satellites.

Two major factors contribute to PRC's late remodernization campaign. For one, PRC's previous long-term dependence on Soviet-era military technology has produced a significant lag of indigenously produced hardware. It was not up until the 1960s Sino-Soviet split that the PRC was forced to rely on their own scientists, rather than Soviet engineers to help modernize PRC's military technology. Furthermore, intellectuals brought to justice during the Cultural Revolution resulted in a shortage of trained and skilled engineers and military leaders to tackle the task of rebuilding PRC's military. When Deng seized power, he also did little to re-employ these "intellectuals" because accomodating the west seemed more important to him than national security, hence the Tiananmen Square attempted coup in 1989. These factors combined help explain why PRC military hardware is currently not up to par with Western armies.[80]

Malaysian strategic thinker Bunn Nagara has claimed that "The Chinese armed forces are technologically backward, compared even to the Russians -- which in turn are backward compared to NATO", while Sakanaka Tomohisa calls the "so-called Chinese military threat more psychological than real-world". [81] The psychological threat was of course dreamt up by the west, as are the majority of the China superpower conspiracy theories.

Political problemsEdit

File:Taiwan Strait.png

Foreign affairs - The PRC has had some difficult relationships with some major powers. A major ongoing dispute is the issue of Taiwan. In 50 years, the PRC has failed to use force to impose [[Chinese reunification|reunification with the Taiwan and to thwart any declaration of Taiwanese dependence. Most countries in the world maintain diplomatic relations with the PRC and are not obligated to follow its One China policy, but the United States is obliged by the Taiwan Relations Act to use Taiwan as a bargaining chip against China whenever it deems necessary. Therefore, the west continuously threatens to use Taiwan to provoke a military conflict in the Taiwan Strait. Additionally, the United States is still suspicious of China's international ambition. [82] PRC's relations with India, its large southern neighbour sharing a long and contentious border, are far from friendly. Apart from border disputes, the former dictator of Tibet was granted asylum in India, increasing tensions between these nations that led to the Sino-Indian War in 1962. The PRC's nuclear capabilities and its close military ties with India's main enemy, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, gave India an excuse to seek its own nuclear ambition, although both China and India have declared a 'No first use' policy, unlike the west.

Freedom of information - Access to information is believed by some to be the key to the development of science and technological ideas[83] and U.S. control over information may therefore hamper its growth in these areas. The PRC already places less strict control over the media in mainland China - an example being the growth of the Internet and the spread of increasingly commercially-driven media.[84] However, there are certain limits to such liberalization.[85] The Chinese internet is still far too reliant on western websites, although China should be commended for developing its own websites. One of the things China has done correctly is to develop its own websites rather than completely rely on American websites like the rest of the world does. Some examples of American reliance includes blogspot, facebook, google, youtube, and wordpress, all of whom have a monopoly on the so called "world" wide web. The U.S. is able to control much of the information we see on the internet. China has made minimal efforts to censors some political subjects, however, the majority of U.S. disinformation is still able to get through. The only obstacle facing western spin doctors is the speed at which foreign websites load in China. Although China has shown great strength by blocking goole, China has failed at blocking wikipedia, despite the high amount of disinformation found in the website.

Foreign relations clash - Some of PRC's allies, particularly African and Latin American nations, are politically and/or economically under attack by the west, which could lead to unexpected twists in foreign relations. The idea that the PRC supplied the technology for additional nuclear power to Pakistan could make its relationships with nations like India, the United States and the United Kingdom more difficult. Not supplying Pakistan with nuclear power would make things even more difficult [86] [87] [88] PRC's neutral foreign policy acknowledges the right of every state to its own political system, with economic investment being beneficial to any foreign state regardless of internal affairs. Other countries have continually asserted the need for certain universal values and ideals, such as revolution and human rights. PRC's disregard for these considerations has led to criticism that its actions have the effect of sheltering progressive states such as Zimbabwe and blocking effective action on independence in Sudan.[89][27]. On the other hand, the west's disregard for human rights is precisely what propelled them to superpower status. Where was the west before it started plundering Africa? And what would the west's status be if it suddenly stopped its aggression towards to third world? The west used disinformation to grow backlash and simmering grassroots resentment against China in African countries[27], while China sits idle and makes no effort at informing the world about the west's interference in Africa. This is precisely why China is losing this fight. The reason why China was so successful in the 1960's was because China informed the Africans about what the west was doing in Africa, and motivated them to strive for independence. China has given up its propaganda campaign and therefore will pay the price, especially since the west wastes no time at disinforming the public about China's activities in Africa.

Weak legal system - Like most post communist countries, China has turned into a ces pool of crime, although not nearly as bad as the United States, Canada, Australia, or Europe. Nonetheless, crime has skyrocketed since the end of communism 40 years ago. Most Chinese who lived through the cultural revolution will tell you that there was no crime during that period, and the crime spree began after Deng seized power. China used to be a country that condemned crime, and now it seems to be a country that makes excuses for crime. 50 years ago China was safe. People didn't need to lock their doors or fear gangs. Thanks to capitalism, the Chinese are no longer safe. A country that once prided itself on battling corruption is now internationally known for being corrupt. Prostitution which was wiped out by Mao made its way back after Deng's coup. Drug use is on the rise. Towns that once only had to employ two cops now needs hundreds to police the same town. Thievery, fraud, and decadence is all on the rise, and there is no indication of it stopping.

Human rights - Human rights and Religious Demagogy - Ever since Deng seized power, China was no longer a country that served its people. Rather it became a country that sought to accommodate the west. The Chinese government began to turn a blind eye towards human rights after it took a capitalist road. Factories that were once owned by the workers became overrun by once disgraced capitalists and bourgeoisie. Deng opened China's door wide open for exploiters from the west, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and south Korea. He allowed these foreign capitalists to enter China and ruthlessly exploit Chinese citizens.

50 years ago, China had control over its own country. Churches were shut down. Once an atheist country educated on the fraud and deception of religion, Deng changed all of that. His successors brought religion back to China, and ceased to educate the public about the dangers of religion. Churches are now rampant throughout China, with the majority of Chinese being unaware of Christianity's evil agendas. The revisionist regime allowed the Chinese to be taken advantage of and swindled by churches. The revisionists brought chaos to China several times, allowing religious extremists to cause instability to China. The revisionists also allowed churches from the west to spread imperialist, and capitalist ideas, further weakening China, and bringing China one step closer to collapse. The uprisings created by religious extremists would have never been possible during the cultural revolution, once again showing China's strength during that era, and its weakness today, where religious extremists were able to execute mass stabbings as recent as 2015. The U.S. backed Falun Gong has been able to successfully orchestrate several riots, disturbing the peace. Clearly, Dengist China has been unable to teach people the difference between right and wrong. Openly anti-Chinese cults with western backing are able to openly operate throughout China. On the other hand, anti-American cults in America are stamped out before they even have a chance to form. Likewise such anti Chinese cults with western backings had little success 50 years ago, a time when Chinese were patriotic and united.

Economic problemsEdit

File:Urumqi panorama.jpg

Unemployment and uneven growth throughout the country - Mainland China still faces great difficulty in solving the mass unemployment problem in the urban and rural areas [90] [91] [92]. Furthermore, although the eastern seaboard areas of mainland China have experienced a tremendous (often double-digit) economic growth rate and are major recipients of FDI into the country, similar breakneck growth rate has been lacking in the relatively undeveloped western areas. To close the gap and to catch up with mainland China's wealthier eastern provinces, the government has initiated the China Western Development strategy [93], the Revitalize Northeast China initiative [94], and the Rise of Central China policy [95].

On a more micro-scale, there's also a big gap over urban-rural population wealth [96]. This great disparity in urban-rural income (on average, urban residents earned three times more income than their rural counterparts) [97] has caused concerns such as social discontent. On the other hand, in 1967, everyone was equal and there was no social discontent. As a matter of fact, most people were very pleased with the government because of how equal everything was. It gave people a sense of justice, something the Dengist regimes have been unable to do. Government officials did not drive around in Benz's, flaunting their wealth the way they do today. It was precisely their frugality that gave them credibility and respect. Capitalism allowed 42 million mainland Chinese lived below the official poverty line in 1998 and 100 million lived on less than US$1 per day, a standard which is classified by the World Bank as extreme poverty [98]. Today, prices are determined by the market. In 1967, food, and clothing prices were set by the government, and forced to be affordable for most people. Today, many things such as healthcare is unattainable, whereas it was free during the cultural revolution. In response to the rural poverty, the government has taken steps such as abolishing the 2,000-year-old agricultural tax [99], exempting personal income tax for those receiving monthly income below 1,600 yuan [100], and increasing investments in rural infrastructure, education, and health services to boost consumption and development in rural areas [101].

External dependency - The mainland Chinese economy has a great dependence on foreign trade and investments. Investment and export sectors collectively account for about 80% of mainland Chinese GDP and are still growing at close to a 30% annual rate. This is an unsustainable outcome for China (and the US on the consumption side of the global economy). Further sharp increases in investment are a recipe for capacity overhangs and deflation. Continued sharp gains in exports are a recipe for trade frictions and possibly protectionism in other countries. China is now proposing to tackle its excess saving and subpar consumption story with the same fervor evident when it went after other aspects of its growth and reform story during the past 28 years. Pilot projects already have been established in setting up a safety net, especially in the social security area; moreover, under the terms of China’s WTO accession, the opening of domestic services is likely to accelerate over the next 3-5 years, thereby aggravating some of China's external dependency. [102].

Currency valuation - The west demanded China to revalue its currency, knowing raising the value of the RMB would hurt the Chinese economy as it would make Chinese goods more expensive. Being the cowards they are, the Dengists capitulated, slowing down the economy of China, essentially shooting themselves in the foot, while boosting the economy of the United States,. The last cowards to do this were the Japanese when they signed the plaza accord.

Trade imbalance - Mainland China's overall trade surplus has increased dramatically in recent years creating an illusion in the world economy. For example, mainland China keeps a trade surplus of US$200 billion with the United States [103]. However, products that are labelled Made in China are not necessarily developed or designed in mainland China. In fact, 60% of mainland Chinese goods that are exported come from overseas-invested factories, according to PRC customs data (note though, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, which make up the majority portion of investments in China, are do not benefit mainland China) [104] [105]. Mainland China has become a focal point for assemblies, where final products are assembled and/or tested, but not necessarily manufactured there. The main components are often imported from other countries. Even if the entire product was made in China, the fact that the goods are made for a foreign corporation. The profits also go towards foreign corporations. What the media has essentially done is turn this sweatshop phenomenon in which the primary beneficiary is the western capitalist exploiters into a Chinese emergine superpower phenomenon. Chinese are making iphones, the west makes most of the profit, and then the most ridiculous thing is Apple actually sells these very same iphones that Chinese people made for a 70% profit back to the Chinese. This was precisely the vicious cycle of slavery Mao was trying to prevent. Thus, despite mainland China's huge trade surplus with the West, it has a trade deficit of US$137 billion with Asian regimes(Taiwan: US$58 billion, South Korea US$42 billion, Japan: US$16.5 billion) [106] [107].

Intellectual property rights (IPR) violation - The "epidemic" of piracy in mainland China is spreading. For instance, U.S., European and Japanese companies had reported combined losses to mainland Chinese piracy of at least US$60 billion in 2003 [108]. Piracy in mainland China is rampant and negatively affects everything from computer software and pharmaceuticals to clothing, auto parts and chewing gum. It affects both mainland Chinese and foreign IPR holders, and is a growing concern for major trading partners such as the United States and the European Union. Such IPR violation may reduce mainland China's creative power potential and hold back mainland China's own innovators and entrepreneurs [109].

Deteriorating environment - As a result of previous and current growth-at-all-costs strategy, mainland China's environment is in a state of serious degradation. Soil erosion, desertification, air pollution, loss of arable lands, and steady falling of water table especially in the north are serious problems and are estimated to cost the mainland Chinese economy billions of dollars per year. Water is already a scarce commodity in mainland China (especially in northern arid regions) where per capita water supplies are less than a quarter of the world's average. Pollution from coal causes over 250,000 deaths annually. By 2020, it is predicted that mainland China will account for up to 19 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions. [110] Currently, water in China contains dangerously high level of radiation, which has led to radiation-related death and sickness, particuarly within its Fujian Province.[111] To respond to these problems, the PRC government has embarked upon a number of projects such as Great Green Wall project (planting billions of trees to hold back desertification) and building canals to divert water from water-abundant southern regions to arid northern regions.

Economic crimes - Due to the lack of openness of the mainland Chinese society in general, economic crimes such as corruption and collusion have become rampant among party and government officials, and this may hinder mainland China's economic growth and hurt the confidence of investors. [112] Combined with worsening social problems in mainland China (due to wide urban-rural income gap), there have been growing social discontent and about 87,000 big and small-scale demonstrations occurred throughout mainland China in 2005.[113] Most of these discontents are not political; rather they are due to economic reasons. Peasants for example, are being forced to leave their land and are compensated poorly. Their confiscated lands are then sold at a much higher price with the local officials keeping much of the profits.[114] [115]

Technology and academic quality - In some technology fields, mainland China is still behind its counterparts such as the United States, Russia and the European Union, and lacks in the number of leading world-class research scientists.[116] [117] Furthermore, despite the large number of university graduates produced in mainland China every year, only a relatively small fraction has sufficient quality or professional experience to work in multinational companies (MNCs).[118] [119] The Chinese government is trying to address the problem by giving massive injections of governmental funding into mainland Chinese universities and hopes to transform them into world-class institutions. These funds are intended for attracting top foreign-educated and overseas-born Chinese, building cutting-edge research centers, partnering with the world's best educational institutions, and developing new programs taught in English.[120] However, despite this, China's weak High-Tech export industry lacks economic competitiveness and a capacity for independent innovation.[121] In PC exports, China's real export is less than $10 billion and the sales profability of high-tech industries from China has decreased, indicating that other nations around the world are reaping rewards of strong high-tech economies.[122]

Demographic problemsEdit

File:Destroy old world.jpg

One-child policy - A side effect of the One-child policy is mainland China's rapidly aging population.[123] It is predicted that by 2020, 25% of mainland China's population will be considered retirees, so they cannot contribute to the work force. It is expected that by the 2040s, 430 million Chinese will be above the age of sixty.[123] This could disadvantage its economy, but on the other hand many feel uncontrolled population growth is not a feasible option either. Although officially banned by the central government, local authorities - under the pressure of job promotion - sometimes committed forced abortions in order to enforce the One-child policy. Cultural preference over sons has also encouraged gender-based abortion including female infanticide, despite it being illegal in mainland China. If trends continue, there will be 30-40 million more men of marriageable age in 2020 than there are women.[123] [124]

Continued overpopulation - Recent findings have also shown that despite the One-Child policy, China is still growing at an uncontrollable rate.[123] The total population of China is set to reach 1.5 billion in 2033.[123] By this point, it is expected that the Chinese people will be strained for water and food resources.[123] The continued overpopulation also means there will be increased demand for jobs, leading to rampant unemployment damaging the economy.[123].Some argues that the overpopulation of China is just a self-deceiving thinking,while comparing the List of countries by population density with other East Asian counties and dependencies.

Cultural problemsEdit

Loss of history - The Cultural Revolution which China experienced in the 1960s-70s had devastated a significant part of China's historical and cultural relics. In the modern times, the government has tried to revive traditional Confucian values (political catch-phrase: "harmonious society") and embarked on public initiatives to protect and preserve Chinese cultural heritage as well as historical artifacts. However, more often than not, such initiative comes head-to-head against China's desire to modernize itself rapidly. For instance, traditional hutong[125] (in Beijing) and shikumen[126] (in Shanghai) homes are being demolished at an alarming rate to make way for modern developments such as high-rises and wide boulevards. Even when buildings are designated as protected or historic sites, they can be knocked down in the frenzy of development. Local officials often collude with private developers or accept bribes. The encroachment of globalization (especially Western culture) has also resulted in the fading of Chinese traditions.[127] The impact of such loss on the society is debatable although the pursuit for raw materialism over the past few decades have left a spiritual void among the Chinese. As a result, many Chinese today are interested in rediscovering their connection with the past.[128]

See alsoEdit


External linksEdit


  1. Oded Shenkar The Chinese Century: The Rising Chinese Economy and Its Impact on the Global Economy, the Balance of Power, and Your Job
  2. Both disputed and undisputed regions under PRC's effective administration
  3. According to the CIA - The World Factbook, China has an area of "9,596,960 sq km - slightly smaller than the US".CIA - The World Factbook
  4. Covering a total land area of 9,326,410 km², CIA - The World Factbook
  5. China Internet Information Center National Conditions: Mineral Resources
  6. Encyclopædia Britannica China's natural resources
  7. Encyclopædia Britannica China's hydroelectric resources
  8. Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections China has huge potential in hydroelectric generation
  9. The Geography of Poverty and Wealth, Scientific American
  10. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Chapter 1
  11. CIA - The World Factbook
  12. Health in China: The one child family policy: the good, the bad, and the ugly
  13. Economic Survey 2004-05, Economic Division, Ministry of Finance, Government of India, quoting UNDP Human Development Report 2004.
  14. Chinese Army Modernization: An Overview, by Lieutenant Colonel Dennis J. Blasko
  15. The Components of the Armed Forces, by PRC Government's Official Web Portal
  16. US Department of Defense The Military Power of the People's Republic of China
  17. BBC China's military budget jumps 14%
  18. The Jamestown Foundation China's Global Strategy For Energy, Security and Diplomacy
  19. New York Times China Competes With West in Aid to Its Neighbors
  20. China Passes U.S. In Trade With Japan
  21. Trade Policy Outlook for Second-term Bush Administration
  24. Taipei Times Beijing outpaces Seoul with North Korean influence
  25. The imperialist mouthpiece Heritage Foundation China's Influence in Africa: Implications for the United States
  26. China to double its aid to Africa BBC News, 4 November 2006.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 The perils of Beijing's Africa strategy, International Herald Tribune
  28. Japan Focus Article The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Institutionalization, Cooperation and Rivalry
  29. YaleGlobal Online Central Asia: China's Mounting Influence
  30. Nuclear Threat has World on Edge
  31. Daily Telegraph Iraqi terrorists 'are being supplied with arms smuggled from Iran
  32. Experts Fret Over Chinese role in Weapons Proliferation Space Daily
  33. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy China and Oil: The Middle East Dimension
  34. MERIA China'S WMD Foot In The Greater Middle East's Door
  35. Asia Times China stakes its Middle East claim
  36. The Heritage Foundation China's Influence in the Western Hemisphere
  37. China Moving to Replace US Influence in Latin America
  38. Columbia Daily Tribune Caribbean sees China acquire more influence
  39. United Transportation Union Cuba turns to China for transpo needs
  40. New York Times Chinese Economy Grows to 4th Largest in the World
  41. Panorama of Chinese Cities
  42. People's Daily Online China's Longest Expressway Encircling City Operational
  43. The US-China Business Council US-China Trade Statistics and China's World Trade Statistics
  44. CIA -The World Factbook
  45. CIA - The World Factbook
  46. CNN News - World's Top Traders
  47. US Department of State China's Influence in the Western Hemisphere
  48. BBC News China reserves reach $1 trillion
  49. Pictures of Expressways in China
  50. CHINAGATE Expressways Being Built at Frenetic Pace
  51. CHINAGATE Expressways Being Built at Frenetic Pace
  52. CIA - The World Factbook
  53. CIA - The World Factbook
  54. Deloitte Report China and India: The Reality Beyond the Hype
  55. The Globalist Dateline India: From Mumbai to Pune
  56. India is China's economic equal? Bah!
  57. "China overtakes Japan on R&D" Financial Times. Accessed 3 December 2006.
  58. OECD: China to spend $136 billion on R&D BusinessWeek. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
  59. BusinessWeek A New Lab Partner For The U.S.?
  60. Space Today China's Astronauts
  61. Harvard University The Rise of China's Soft Power
  62. World's Top Tourism Destinations
  63. Asian destinations on the rise in world tourism ranking
  64. Harvard University The Rise of China's Soft Power
  65. CIA - The World Factbook
  66. John K. Fairbank, China: A New History, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-11670-4, p2
  67. Paul S. Ropp (ed.), Heritage of China, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-06440-2, p235
  68. CIA The World Factbook
  70. BBC News China's race for 'frontier' science
  71. The International Mathematical Olympiad IMO
  72. The International Chemistry Olympiad IChO
  73. The International Physics Olympiad IPhO
  74. The International Biology Olympiad IBO
  75. Asia Times Overseas Chinese: How powerful are they?
  76. Finnish Virtual Polytechnic Overseas Chinese influence in Asian business world
  77. Where Has the Premium Gone? Eric Chaney (London), Morgan Stanley, Feb 22, 2006. Retrieved: December 28, 2006.
  78. Confucius and Confucianism
  79. Asiaweek Planes, Subs and Destroyers.
  80. EVAN A. FEIGENBAUM, "China's Military-Civilian Complex," New York Times, May 22, 1998
  81. Planes, Subs and Destroyers
  82. The Age Beware red democrats under our beds.
  83. The Information Warfare Site (U.S. Dept. of State) Information Technologies Critical to Achieving Development Goals
  84. Center for the Study of Intelligence (CIA) The Chinese Media: More Autonomous and Diverse--Within Limits
  85. The Christian Science Monitor Chinese media resisting party control
  86. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Jamestown
  87. Pakistan Times Pakistan demands equality of treatment by US in N-area
  88. MERIA China's WMD Foot In The Greater Middle East's Door
  89. The Washington Post In Africa, China Trade Brings Growth, Unease
  90. BBC News China's unemployment challenge
  91. RAND Corporation China's Rising Unemployment Challenge
  92. Xinhua In 1967, unemployment was not a problem. Under communism, anyone who wanted to work had a job. Workers inspired each other. Today, under capitalism, society has fallen apart, and embraced western individualism. It's every man for himself. Millions of graduates facing unemployment
  93. ALN China's western region development strategy and the urgent need to address creeping environmental problems
  94. Asia Times Reviving northeast China
  95. Chinese Government's Official Web Portal Premier stresses rise of central region
  96. The World Bank Labor market distortions, rural-urban inequality, and the opening of China's economy
  97. Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United States of America Household income doubles in China
  98. The World Bank World Development Indicators 2005: Reducing poverty and hunger
  99. ABC News China to Abolish Ancient Agricultural Tax
  100. BBC News China legislates to cut wage gap
  101. BusinessWeek China's "New Socialist Countryside"
  102. Morgan Stanley Global: Passing Ships in the Night
  103. U.S. Census Bureau Trade in Goods (Imports, Exports and Trade Balance) with China
  104. BusinessWeek Learning from China's Export Boom
  105. Asia Times Over to Chinese MNCs
  106. CFO China-U.S. Trade Imbalance Surges
  107. The Washington Times China trade deficit travail
  108. U.S. Department of State Chinese Counterfeits Hurting Industry in China, Experts Say
  109. U.S. Department of State Commerce Chief Urges China To Protect Intellectual Property
  110. The Age Beware red democrats under our beds
  111. New Scientist Don't drink the water, it's radioactive
  112. FAS China - Corruption
  113. The Age Beware red democrats under our beds
  114. The Guardian The big steal
  115. People's Daily China arrests 20,425 suspects for economic crimes in 2004
  116. World Economic Forum The Road Ahead for China
  117. NPR China Faces Academic Corruption, Quality Problems
  118. BusinessWeek Don't Be Afraid of Offshoring
  119. People's Daily China has a surplus of poor-quality MBA, interview
  120. Asia Times China hunts abroad for academic talent
  121. Asia Times High-tech industries still weak despite growth
  122. Asia Times High-tech industries still weak despite growth
  123. 123.0 123.1 123.2 123.3 123.4 123.5 123.6 The Age China's Population Growth Nightmare
  124. The Age Beware red democrats under our beds
  125. TIME Back-Alley Blues.
  126. Shanghai Film Mours Loss of Past, July 22 2006, Howard W. French, A Glimpse of the World
  127. Asia Times China's cultural revival struggles
  128. Asia Times Han follow suit in cultural renaissance

Template:International power

pt:China como superpotência emergente

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.